An Introduction to the Music of Parsifal
Wagner's Treatment of the Thematic Material
ince the thematic material of Parsifal is the subject of a separate article it will not be discussed at length here. A few important points are worth noting, however. There are thematic elements in the music of Parsifal that might be regarded as Leitmotive, i.e. recurring musical ideas that are encountered as presentiments of events in the future, or as reminiscences of events in the past1. (It is possible for the occurrence of a musical motive to be both at once: as when Gurnemanz tells the recruits about the seduction of Amfortas, we hear the teasing motive associated with the Kiss, that will be heard again when it is Parsifal's turn to be seduced). Many of the extended Leitmotive to be found in the score turn out, on closer examination, to be complexes built up from basic motives (which Lorenz called Urmotive), each consisting of only a few notes. In fact, there are five kinds of thematic element in this motivic web of evolution and renewal:
number of commentators on the work have observed that it is entirely made out of a small number of closely-related motives. They are related either by common elements (e.g. complexes sharing basic motives and characteristic intervals), or by their common origin in one or more thematic elements heard earlier in the work. Even the monody that opens the work, which I have referred to elsewhere as the Grundthema, is itself a complex which is, at the higher level of structure, composed of three short motives that will later develop their distinct associations, and at the lower level made up of a broken chord (that of Parsifal) followed by a number of tiny melodic cells that will be combined and developed later. Several of the extended themes (e.g. Prophecy) are revealed fragment by fragment until, at the appropriate moment, they are heard complete and connected to the dramatic action. Where there is contrast, it is mainly provided by the development of chromatic variants of diatonic originals, or by changes of rhythm.
our of the principal characters each has his or her own motive, although Gurnemanz, as a neutral narrator, does not seem to have one of his own. These Leitmotive, together with those associated with objects, events and abstractions, blend into one another according to the relationships between the characters. This is deliberate; in this music Wagner was concerned with mediation. Whereas in earlier works he had used strong contrasts, he was now concerned with shadings, as of grey between the poles of black and white.
[Letter to Mathilde Wesendonk, 29 October 1859, Wesendonk-Briefe 232-6, tr. Spencer and Millington]
agner referred to and exploited the operatic tradition by making use of traditional operatic forms. It is possible to identify accompanied recitative, arioso, ensembles and even strophic passages in Parsifal. The traditional forms, however, are scarcely recognisable, since Wagner transcended their limitations.
he German musicologist Alfred Lorenz analysed the forms of Wagner's works in his Das Geheimnis der Form bei Richard Wagner. In the later works, Lorenz found (or believed he had found) many examples of bar form (Stollen; Stollen; Abgesang), as it is described by David in the first act of Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg, both on the small scale and on a large scale. In Tristan and Parsifal, as Lorenz showed, there is a similarity of structure — both musical and dramatic — between the outer acts. Lorenz has been heavily criticized for his obsessive reduction of Wagner's scores to a hierarchy of simple forms, mainly the arch (ABA) and the bar (AAB). Although it is undeniable that Wagner used arch form (for example, as the overall structure of both Tristan and Parsifal), except in Die Meistersinger where it is to be expected, true bars (AAB) are rarely found in the other late operas. Lorenz's identification of bar form is not always convincing and in particular, the analysis of the entire second act of Parsifal as a bar seems forced. According to Lorenz, the second act of Parsifal is constructed of nineteen musico-poetic periods, each of which has its own tonality. In terms of bar form (AAB), on the architectural scale, the first Stollen (periods 1 to 7) ends with the disappearance of Klingsor; the second Stollen (periods 8 to 12) ends at the reappearance of Kundry; and the scene between Kundry and Parsifal forms the Abgesang. It is difficult to take this seriously, since the alleged Stollen are very different. In reality, the large-scale form of the second act can be more accurately described as ABC.
orenz divided Parsifal (and other operas) into musico-poetic periods. His critics have said that the divisions between these periods often are arbitrary. The difficulty here is that there are very few cadential points in the score and therefore, except for the start and end of a scene, any scheme of divisions will be to some extent arbitrary. Although Lorenz claimed to have identified the underlying key of each period (shown in the column headed "home key" of the table below), the fluid tonality of Wagner's music does not often allow one key to dominate. Despite this, the Lorenzian periods provide a useful framework for analyzing the score. In the table below I have summarized the musico- poetic structure of the opera and listed Lorenz's periods (from volume 4 of das Geheimnis der Form. The page numbers given below refer to the Edition Eulenburg full score.
The musical and poetic structure of Parsifal Act I
The musical and poetic structure of Parsifal Act II
The musical and poetic structure of Parsifal Act III
Diatonic and Chromatic
[Carl Dahlhaus, tr. Mary Whittall, Richard Wagner's Music Dramas]
he domain of the Grail, which is physically the location of the first and last acts of the drama, is predominantly diatonic; whereas that of the magician Klingsor, which is the physical location of the second act, is predominantly chromatic. Parsifal's motivic group is at the diatonic extreme; Klingsor's motivic group is at the opposite extreme of chromaticism. The music of Amfortas and Kundry lies between these poles.
n the domain of Klingsor (or when Gurnemanz refers to it) we hear, in minor keys, chromatic versions of Leitmotive that were originally diatonic and predominantly in major keys. Consider the use of the Redemption theme (motive 1A) in Parsifal's outburst after the Kiss. This kind of variation according to context is not just restricted to the melodic and rhythmic elements. This also applies to another important element: the transformation music that accompanies Parsifal's access to the Grail Castle in each of the outer acts. At the climax of the second act prelude, there is a distorted parody of the transformation music that takes the listener into Klingsor's distorted version of the Grail Castle. Like the reflections in Klingsor's mirror, all that is found in his castle is a distorted, sterile reflection of the domain of the Grail.
lthough there are some triadic passages in the score, there are also passages in which diminished-seventh chords are prominent. A diminished-seventh chord is just a stack of notes separated by minor thirds. The so-called Tristan chord, which is heard for example in the second act of Parsifal at the moment of the kiss, can be regarded as a modified diminished-seventh chord; and diminished-seventh chords are the basic element of Parsifal's subsequent outburst, after the kiss, from Amfortas! Die Wunde! to Hier, hier!. Later, it is a diminished-seventh chord (B flat, D flat, E and G) that dominates the desolate music of the third act prelude. Both harmonically and melodically, Wagner's consistent use of minor thirds and tritones to some extent replaces the traditional triadic harmonies based on perfect intervals.
Fig. 1 Cadences at the climax of Act III
everal commentators have noted that there are relatively few unequivocal cadences in the work. Note, shown above, the outburst of diatonic harmonies, with three very definite B major cadences, after Gurnemanz hails the pure one as the new Grail King. Obviously something extremely important is happening at this moment. It is followed by the 26 bars during which Kundry is baptised. Then, as Kundry weeps, the music reaches the remote key of b flat minor (the tonal center of the prelude to this act), returning to B major for Parsifal's motive in its final development. In his essay in the Cambridge Opera Handbook on Parsifal, Arnold Whittall has observed:
ot only does Wagner sometimes seem to be evading cadences, but also avoiding the appearance of the implied tonic, e.g. by establishing the
dominant of an unheard tonic. As for example in the first scene with Kundry, where the shifting chromatic harmonies at times suggest an underlying b minor, although the tonic
chord is never heard. The emphasis on keys a tritone apart is one factor that has frustrated attempts to analyse this music with the techniques appropriate to sonatas and symphonies, including
Schenkerian analysis. Listen, for example, to the change from D flat to A major at the end of Gurnemanz's narration in the first act (
n the orchestration of Parsifal, Wagner returned to the quadruple woodwind he had used in the Ring, but omitted the so-called Wagner tubas, bass trumpet and contrabass trombone. In much of his scoring of the work, Wagner returned to the blocked instrumentation of his earlier operas, rather than the integrated scoring of Tristan and Die Meistersinger, where melodic lines pass seamlessly from one instrument to another and textures are built with instruments from different divisions of the orchestra. Parsifal actually begins with this kind of orchestration, but when the motives of Holy Grail (motive 2) and Faith (motive 3) appear, they are played by different instrumental groups in turn. The block-like scoring is less evident in the more contrapuntal passages, such as the music of the Flower Maidens. As in Tristan, the horns are mostly grouped with the woodwind, rather than with the other brass instruments.
Pierre Boulez has remarked, the tempi of Parsifal are unstable in dramatic passages and stable in reflective passages. Since about the middle of the 20th century, there has been an increasing tendency for conductors to emphasis the contrasts in tempi, for example taking the opening of the work (marked sehr langsam) very slowly, and the prelude to the second act (marked heftig, doch nicht übereilt) very fast.
Footnote 1: Wagner did not invent the word Leitmotiv (leading motive) and did not much like it. He preferred to speak of Hauptthema or Grundthema. By definition, a leading motive returns and when it does so, the listener and spectator is reminded (consciously or subconsciously) of the context in which it occurred before. Note that a leading motive does not always have one fixed meaning: if it occurs multiple times, in different contexts, the motive acquires a trace of meaning. See next article for more about this topic.
Footnote 2: Here I am using the term "basic motive" loosely and not meaning (necessarily) Urmotive, which is a term introduced by Lorenz. These are usually fragments rather than complete motives. Kurt Mey (1901) called them Urgesetzen. The "building blocks" that either Kurt Mey (1-4) or Alfred Lorenz (5-8) identified are the following: