Jesus of Nazareth - Buddha (The Victors) - Parsifal
espite being more than a century old, this article has not, to my knowledge, previously appeared in English translation. It is of particular interest in relation to Parsifal as the first commentary to consider the possibility of Buddhist references in Wagner's "stage-dedicatory festival-play", some fourteen years after its first performance and at a time in which it was widely regarded as a Christian mystery play. Heckel attempted to relate Parsifal, as a religious drama or a drama involving religious ideas, with two earlier projects on religious themes, both of which Wagner had abandoned. Neither the sketch and notes for Jesus of Nazareth (1848) nor the short sketch for The Victors (Die Sieger, 1856) were published during Wagner's lifetime.
If therefore Heckel appears to devote much of his article to reviewing the content of these sketches, it is because they were not familiar to the readership of the Blätter. Heckel seems to have been particularly interested in the predecessors of Kundry: the figure of Mary Magdalen in Jesus of Nazareth and that of the outcast maiden Prakriti in The Victors. It is left for the reader to judge whether and if so to what extent Kundry was a further development of these earlier characters.
e can distinguish three periods in the work of Richard Wagner. The first of them ended with Rienzi. I consider it to be
characterised by the Master's words,
hat Wagner sketched in the broadest outline in his Flying Dutchman, he rendered ever more clearly in Tannhäuser
and in Lohengrin. What he said about the emotional reception of dramatic content in these works, we may extend to all his works from Flying Dutchman to Parsifal: that the
dramatic content was put there by the word-tone poet to express
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