Motif 10: Riding and Storm
German names: Rittmotiv Kundrys ; Kundrys Seufzermotiv; Streitmotiv; Knabentatenmotiv
|Riding (ogg format)|
Two related motives. The Riding motif serves to remind us that, in Wagner's operatic works, it is unwise to assign narrow associations to the Leitmotive. Ernest Newman in his Wagner as Man and Artist takes this motif as an example of the misleading names that commentators had assigned to Wagner's motives. Applying a label such as Riding or Galloping to this motif does not help the listener when it accompanies Kundry fetching water from the spring, or when she calls upon Klingsor for help at the end of the second act.
On its first appearance, the Riding motif is associated with the wild ride (across the sky) of Kundry-Herodias (and it is probable that Wagner was thinking of Heine's poem, in which Herodias joins the Wild Hunt). It reappears (in the Storm variant) when Parsifal recalls the riders who had drawn him away from his mother, and at all subsequent references to riding. The motif has wider associations and in all other cases it is associated with Kundry; although the first four notes (marked 'a' in example C) appear (although not in the same voice) in the Parsifal motif.
Many commentators on the music of Parsifal have noted that in large part it develops from the Grundthema. Very few of them have noticed that the music of Kundry and Klingsor develops from the Riding motif, which is not related to Grundthema in any way at all. Therefore the glib statement that the music all develops from what we hear in the first 6 bars of the opera is simply wrong.
This motif has sometimes been given the misleading name of the Kundry's Curse motif, because it appears at Kundry's reference to her curse at the beginning of the second act. It becomes clear, however, towards the end of the same act that this was not a reference to the curse itself, but to the wandering that results both from Kundry's curse and from the curse she puts on Parsifal.
Lorenz stated that the harmony of the Riding motif matches that of Klingsor's Magic: specifically the last part of example A. Both motives are harmonized with the same mystical chords (see for example bar 204). Therefore these motives are related not only by common rhythm but by the same unusual harmonies. For details please see the page for motif #14. Lorenz comments that all of these motives relating to Kundry are in Klingsor's key of b minor. This is because they are specifically related to Kundry while she is under the sorcerer's control. The notes in example B that I have marked with 'x' were called by Lorenz Kundry's sigh (Kundrys Seufzermotiv).
Carl Dahlhaus has pointed out that this is a hybrid theme, with both the rising chromatic intervals of Yearning and the falling chromatic
intervals of Suffering. In his analysis of the scene between Kundry and Parsifal in act II, the first three of seven periods that make up the
Grausamer section of the scene, are dominated by each of these motives in succession. The Riding/Herodias motif accompanies the period
durch Tod und Leben, Pein und Lachen.
Dahlhaus analyses this form of the motif, rather inaccurately, into three components: a fragment of Klingsor (a), a part representing riding
(b) and the Yearning motif (c). Although the notes of (a) do appear in the Klingsor motif, it is surely more
significant that they appear in the Parsifal motif with the same rhythm as here. Incidentally, the last four notes (d) are identical to the motif
of Tristan's Honour from Tristan und Isolde; this might not be significant if it were not for the fact that the Remorse motif is its inversion.
Fighting (Hermann Uhde; ogg format)
According to Wolzogen, the Storm or Fight motif (Streitmotiv), which accompanies Parsifal fighting with Klingsor's
army of knights, develops from a "stormy" variation of the Riding motif (example D). It is another motif that, like Parsifal, has many names. This
Storm motif appears in the first act at bar 969 when Parsifal recalls how he had met shining knights riding through the forest. In the second act
Storm is heard again at bar 321,
zu wilden Knabentaten .... Therefore Lorenz calls this variant the Knabentatenmotiv. Like Parsifal, this motif has many names.
Warren Darcy more recently has drawn attention to the similarities between the Storm/Fight motif and the Magic/Sorcery motif #14. Points of similarity are shown by the blue vertical lines in the example above.
At the beginning of the third act we hear the hero tired as he rides towards Monsalvat. The Riding motif becomes the motif of Straying #33.
References: von Wolzogen ex.6 "Kundry's Stormy Figure", Lorenz pp.22-23, 45, Kufferath p.234 ex.10, Lavignac p.447 "The Gallop", Newman (Wagner Nights) ex.11 and his earlier book Wagner as Man and Artist, ENO ex.5, 23, 59. Dahlhaus (Richard Wagner's Music Dramas) page 155. Warren Darcy (Die Zeit ist da) in Kinderman and Syer 2005, p.237.