The Waste Land: Eliot, Wagner and the Rites of Adonis
[J.G.Frazer, The Myth of Adonis from The Golden Bough1, revised
In course of time, the slow advance of knowledge, which has dispelled so many cherished illusions, convinced at least the more thoughtful
portion of mankind that the alternations of summer and winter, of spring and autumn, were not merely the result of their own magical rites, but that some deeper cause, some mightier power, was at work
behind the shifting scenes of nature. They now pictured to themselves the growth and decay of vegetation, the birth and death of living creatures, as effects of the waxing or waning strength of divine
beings, of gods and goddesses, who were born and died, who married and begot children, on the pattern of human life. Thus the old magical theory of the seasons was displaced, or rather supplemented, by a
religious theory. For although men now attributed the annual cycle of change primarily to corresponding changes in their deities, they still thought that by performing certain magical rites they could
aid the god, who was the principle of life, in his struggle with the opposing principle of death.
f Wagner's Parsifal is, as the composer would have us believe, a profoundly Christian work, then as such it does
not seem to fit into any Christian dramatic or musical sacred tradition. It has often been regarded as a kind of
miracle play, which makes use of Christian symbols,
although it has long been recognized that Wagner also used legends from the Buddhist tradition.
his article will consider the evidence for regarding Wagner's Parsifal as neither Christian nor Buddhist, but as a sacred drama in an
Indo-European tradition that began thousands of years before either of those religions had been established. The article draws on ideas about primitive religion and kingship developed by Sir James
Frazer, a pioneer of anthrolopogy, and Jessie Laidlay Weston, a scholar who was greatly influenced by Frazer, and also the first translator of Wolfram's poem Parzival into English.
he article will also consider how some of the themes discussed by Frazer and Weston in relation to the Grail romances relate to
Wagner's Grail opera. In particular, that of the relationship between the king of the Grail and the community and lands over which he rules. On the way,
this article will summarise the development of the Grail romances in the analysis made by Jessie Laidlay Weston. It will also be considered
what if any is the relationship between Wagner's opera and a poem that quotes another poem about it: T.S. Eliot's The Waste Land.
common feature of kingship in primitive societies is the intimate association of the king with the land. The king is often regarded as the temporary
incarnation of a god whose youth, vigour and virility are essential to the kingdom:
[J.G.Frazer, The Golden Bough.]
The king's life or spirit is so sympathetically bound up with the prosperity of the whole country, that if he fell ill or grew senile the
cattle would sicken or cease to multiply, the crops would rot in the fields, and men would perish of widespread disease.
herefore, in such societies, the king is only allowed to rule for a fixed term, after which he is killed (usually by his successor) and replaced. In the
most extreme cases, the term is one year, so that the death of the old king coincides with the passing of the old year. J.G.Frazer noted that such annual regicide seems to have been common in Western
Asia and particularly in Phrygia, where the king-priest was slain in the character of Attis, a god of vegetation.
o what does this have to do with Wagner's drama? It is widely recognized that the composer's starting point for his last opera was Wolfram's Parzival. But, as he wrote to Mathilde Wesendonck, Wagner thought that Wolfram's poem was confused and of no use to him as the basis of the opera that he had in mind to create.
I almost agree with Frederick the Great who, on being
presented with a copy of Wolfram, told the publisher not to bother him with such stuff! So Wagner read around the subject of the Grail and in much other literature of the same
period. From the Grail romances he selected certain elements that he thought might be combined to make a story. One such element is that of an extremely old king, a
character who is mentioned in several of the Grail romances, in which this old (and usually unseen) king is served by the Grail. There is also a
Grail king, one who serves the Grail rather than being served by it. In Chrétien's story, the old king is the father
of the Grail king; in Wolfram's account, his grandfather.
agner found that it suited his purpose to use the two kings element of the
Grail romances. The extremely old king became Titurel, who lies in a tomb and is kept alive by an occasional glimpse of the Grail. He is the unseen king who is served by the Grail. The more visible king is variously known to students of literature
as the Maimed King or the Fisher King.
essie Laidlay Weston distinguished between the Maimed King, who is sick or injured, and the
priest-king, the Fisher King, in her analysis of the Grail legend and its possible ritual origin. The Fisher King is not always sick or injured
but he is always the host who welcomes the quester:
[Jessie Laidlay Weston, The Grail and the Rites of Adonis.]
Students of the Grail cycle will hardly need to be reminded that the identity of the Maimed King is a hopeless
puzzle. He may be the Fisher King, or the Fisher King's father, or have no connection with either, as in the Evalach-Mordrains
story. He may have been wounded in battle, or accidentally, or wilfully, or by supernatural means, as the punishment of too close an approach to the spiritual mysteries... Probably the characters of
the Maimed King and the Fisher King were originally distinct, the Maimed King representing, as we have suggested, the god, in whose honour the rites were performed;
the Fisher King, who, whether maimed or not, invariably acts as host, representing the Priest.
n the earliest (Gawain) form of the Grail romances, according to Weston, the lord of the
Grail castle was neither old nor infirm, but dead. It was on account of the death of this knight that misfortune had fallen upon the land. In all of the Perceval versions, however, it was the king who had been wounded (or, in the case of the Didot Perceval only, grown old)
and this was the cause of the wasting of the land. To achieve the quest and revive the land, either the king had to be healed, or restored to youth and vigour, or a young and vigorous successor had to
undertake the burden of kingship.
agner seems to have distilled the essence of the story. He tells us that he rejected Wolfram's account and recognised that, even in Chrétien's (earlier) version, the healing Question was an unnecessary complication. In his Parsifal, the collapse of the Grail community is a result of Amfortas' wound, which is both physical and spiritual. In place of asking a Question, the destined successor has to fulfil a
quest through which the symbols of cup and lance are reunited, and the Maimed King is both healed and succeeded. Like
Weston, Wagner realised that the king who serves the Grail also has a priestly role and he replaced the hidden castle with a hidden temple, in which his Amfortas serves both as king and as priest.
The Man with Three Staves (an authentic member of the Tarot pack) I associate, quite arbitrarily, with the Fisher King himself.
[T.S.Eliot, Notes on The Waste Land]
n Robert de Boron's Joseph d'Arimathie (one of the oldest surviving romances), the brother of Joseph is
called Bron. When the company of the Grail are starving, Bron is told to catch a fish, which feeds them in a ritual meal. After this, Bron is known as the Rich Fisher. Joseph, the
original Winner of the Grail, and his brother Bron can be regarded as one form of the double-king element found in later versions of the story. The fisherman element is found in
all of the Perceval romances. In Chrétien's Perceval, for example, the hero meets
the Grail king when he is fishing from a boat. It may be significant that the Grail castle is always located close to water (and in at
least two cases, on an island). The fish is a traditional fertility symbol, perhaps as a result of its fecundity, a characteristic that it shares with another Grail symbol, the
dove. This has been seen as evidence that fertility is an underlying theme of the myth.
Frisch weht der Wind
Der Heimat zu
Mein Irisch Kind
Wo weilest du?
[T.S.Eliot, The Burial of the Dead from The Waste Land, 1922. The work quoted is Wagner's Tristan und Isolde.]
'You gave me hyacinths first a year ago;
'They called me the hyacinth girl.'
— Yet when we came back, late,
from the hyacinth garden,
Your arms full, and your hair wet, I could not
Speak, and my eyes failed, I was neither
Living nor dead, and I knew nothing,
Looked into the heart of light, the silence.
Oed' und leer das Meer.
essie Laidlay Weston identified three stages of development in the medieval Grail romances. In the first of them, the hero was Gawain (or the Welsh Gwalchmei) and the land had been wasted as a
consequence of the mysterious death of an unnamed knight. In this form of the legend, the body of the dead knight lies on a scarlet cloth upon a bier in the Grail
castle. Another feature specific to the Gawain version is that the Grail- bearer weeps piteously.
[Jessie Laidlay Weston, The Grail and the Rites of Adonis]
The most curious instance of the persistence of this part of the original tradition is to be found in Gawain's
visit to Corbenic, in the prose Lancelot, where he sees no one, but twelve maidens kneeling at the closed door of the Grail chamber, weeping bitterly and praying to be
delivered from their torment. But the dwellers in Castle Corbenic, so far from being in torment, have all that heart can desire, and, moreover, the honour of being guardians of the (here) sacred and
most Christian relic, the Holy Grail.
he best- known version of this form is known as the First Continuation to Perceval; which is not
consistent with Chrétien's unfinished poem. It appears to be based on an independent story, added to the poem by an unknown editor in order to make an ending.
Gawain fails to ask about the Grail (by which he would have restored the Waste Land) but he does ask about the spear, which
brings about a partial restoration. We should note, incidentally, that in this and other romances, the spear is seen at the Grail castle,
where it is one of the objects (hallows) of the ritual. The variation on the story in which the spear has been lost, together with the idea that it
caused the wound of the Maimed King, is entirely Wagner's invention.
n the later German text Diu Crône (The Crown), from about 1230, the lord of the Grail castle is old and weak. After Gawain has asked the Question, removing the enchantment from the Waste
Land, we are told that the king and his attendants were in fact dead, but held in semblance of life until the task was completed.
Right: The Achievement of Sangreal by Sir Galahad
, William Hatherell (1855- 1928). © King Arthur's Hall.
n the second stage of development, the Widow's Son displaced Gawain as the primary hero. Jessie Laidlay Weston pointed to a distinctive feature common to the otherwise differing Perceval versions: the sickness and disability of
the ruler of the Waste Land, who is called the Fisher King. According to Weston, the element of the Waste Land declined in
importance during the development of this form until, in Wolfram's Parzival, the healing of the Fisher King appears to be an end in itself.
[Jessie Laidlay Weston, The Grail and the Rites of Adonis]
This wasting of the land is found in three Gawain Grail stories: [that] by Bleheris,
the version of Chastel Merveilleus, and Diu Crône; it is found in one Perceval text, the Gerbert
continuation. Thus, briefly, the object of the Rites is the restoration of Vegetation, connected with the revival of the god; the object of the Quest is the same, but connected with the restoration to
health of the king.
riginally, the distress of the land was a direct result of the death of the king, or the injury or aging of the king; but in Chrétien's account, the disaster only develops after the failure of Perceval to ask the Question on his first
visit to the Grail castle and in the Perlesvaus, the wasting is a direct consequence of Perceval's failure. The Welsh version, Peredur son of Evrawg, is a confused tale, possibly based upon an imperfect recollection either of
Chrétien's poem or an earlier version of the same form, perhaps the prose original referred to by Chrétien, and also possibly the
Third Continuation. Like Perlesvaus, it is a revenge story.
he Grail romances are characterised by a tension between the theme of revenge and the theme of healing. This tension
points to at least two distinct, original sources:
[R.S.Loomis, The Grail: from Celtic Myth to Christian Symbol, 1963]
As we review some of the findings of the previous chapters, we perceive that there were not only two main themes which tended to combine in
bewildering associations, but several subordinate disharmonies contributed to the mystification of both the authors and their readers. There was a wounded king for the hero to cure; there was a slain
king for him to avenge. Yet they seemed to bear somewhat the same name. The king's infirmity or death caused his land to be sterile and waste; yet, strange to say, he possessed a talisman of
inexhaustible abundance. There were two damsels in the king's household, one whose function was to serve his guests with the talismanic vessel, to assume a monstrous shape when the hero failed in his
task of healing the king, and violently to rebuke him; the other whose function was to spur the hero on to avenge a kinsman's death. The task of healing required the hero to ask a spell-breaking
Question; the task of vengeance required him to unite the fragments of a broken sword.
Above: The Attainment: The Vision of the Holy Grail to Sir Galahad, Sir Bors and Sir Perceval
. Also known as, The Achievement of the Grail
. A tapestry
woven by William Morris after a design by Sir Edward Burne-Jones. ©Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery.
n the final stage, the themes of vengeance and healing, together with such elements as the wasting of the land and the Question,
have disappeared and what remains is a spiritual quest. As in Perlesvaus, the story is dominated by moralising and Christian allegory. The hero
is now Galahad, son of Lancelot. In The Quest of the Holy Grail, there are two
wounded kings at the Grail castle, and the title of Fisher King is variously applied to both of them. The virgin Galahad, who
was born at the Grail castle, has never failed and achieves the quest in fulfilment of his destiny.
Right: Sir Galahad
, by George Frederick Watts (1817-1904).
Let us note first, that whatever else changes in the story, the essential framework remains the same. Always the castle is found by chance; always the hero beholds marvels he does not comprehend; always he fails to fulfil the test which would have qualified him to receive
the explanation of those marvels; always he recognises his fault too late, when the opportunity has passed beyond recall; and only after long trial is it again granted to him. Let us clear our
minds once and for all from the delusion that the Grail story is primarily the story of a quest; it is that secondarily. In its primary form it is the romance of a lost
opportunity; for always, and in every instance, the first visit connotes failure; it is to redress that failure that the quest is undertaken. So essential is this part of the story that it
survives even in the Galahad version; that immaculate and uninteresting hero does not fail, of course; but neither does he come to the Grail castle for the first time when he presides at the solemn and symbolic feast; he was brought up there, but has left it before the Quest begins; like his
predecessors, Gawain and Perceval, he goes forth from the castle in order to return.
[Jessie Laidlay Weston, The Grail and the Rites of Adonis.]
n his notes on The Waste Land Eliot informs us:
Not only the title, but the plan and a good deal of the incidental symbolism of the poem were
suggested by Miss Jessie Laidlay Weston's book on the Grail legend: From Ritual to Romance ... To another work of anthropology I am indebted in general,
one which has influenced our generation profoundly; I mean The Golden Bough; I have used especially the two volumes Adonis, Attis, Osiris. Anyone who is
acquainted with these works will immediately recognise in the poem certain references to vegetation ceremonies.
he cult of the Babylonian fertility god known to the Sumerians and Akkadians as Dumuzi-abzu, but better known under his Syrian name of Tammuz, may be
traced back to about 3000 B.C. Dumuzi is a Sumerian deity of the marshes. His name means "quickener of the young in the mother womb of the deep". His sister, Geshtinanna, is the power in the grape, and
his female consort is Inanna, who in the earliest period symbolizes the "storehouse of dates." Dumuzi, Inanna and Geshtinanna, as well as Duttura, the mother of Dumuzi, and Ereshkigal, the sister of
Inanna and goddess of the underworld, are prominent in several mythological cycles and mythical dramas. In a pantheon containing thousands of deities, these serve as examples of the reigning symbolism of
fertility. As the god of the harvest, Dumuzi was required, like Osiris of Egypt, to conquer death by emerging from the Underworld. The surviving Sumerian and Akkadian texts contain many lamentations for
Dumuzi, who left the surface of the earth once a year, with disastrous consequences for animal and vegetable life. Dumuzi-Tammuz appears to have been more than a seasonal god, however; he was believed to
participate in the reproductive activities of all forms of life.
he Phrygian cult of the resurrected Attis may be as old as that of Dumuzi-Tammuz and both may have derived from the worship of a common predecessor. Or,
despite their common features, they may have developed independently:
[J.G.Frazer, The Golden Bough.]
The annual death and revival of vegetation is a conception which readily presents itself to men in every stage of savagery and civilisation:
and the vastness of the scale on which this ever-recurring decay and regeneration takes place, together with man's most intimate dependence on it for subsistence, combine to render it the most
impressive annual occurrence in nature, at least within the temperate zones. It is no wonder that a phenomenon so important, so striking, and so universal should, by suggesting similar ideas, have
given rise to similar rites in many lands.
he death and rebirth of Attis were annually mourned and rejoiced over by devotees at a festival in spring, usually at the vernal equinox. Attis was said to
have been a fair young shepherd or herdsman beloved by the mother goddess Cybele. There are two different accounts of his death: in one he castrated himself under a pine-tree and bled to death. This
version may have been invented to explain the self-castration of his priests. In the other, he was, like Adonis, killed by a wild boar, and hence his followers abstained from pork. He was subsequently
changed into a pine-tree and therefore such a tree, decorated with violets, was venerated by worshippers during the spring festival.
O you who turn the wheel and look to windward,
Consider Phlebas, who was once handsome
and tall as you.
[T.S.Eliot, Death by Water from The Waste Land, 1922]
I weep for Adonais — he is dead!
O, weep for Adonais! though our tears
Thaw not the frost that binds so dear a head!
[P.B.Shelley, Adonais, 1821]
he cult of Adonis (according to Frazer, another divinity of vegetation) seems to have originated in Phoenicia and spread first to Cyprus. By the 7th
century B.C. he was being worshiped throughout the Greek world. The name or title Adonis was also applied to Tammuz, Adon being the Syrian word meaning Lord.
Much-named, and best of daimons, hear my prayer, the desert-loving,
decked with tender hair;
Joy to diffuse, by all desired is yours, much formed, Eubouleos;
Female and Male, all charming to the sight, Adonis ever flourishing and
At stated periods doomed to set and rise, with splendid lamp, the glory
of the skies.
Two-horned and lovely, reverenced with tears, of beauteous form,
adorned with copious hairs.
Rejoicing in the chase, all-graceful power, sweet plant of Aphrodite,
Eros’ delightful flower:
Descended from the secret bed divine, of lovely-haired, infernal
‘Tis yours to find in Tartarus profound, and shine again through
heaven’s illustrious round,
With beauteous temporal orb restored to sight; come, with earth’s fruits,
and in these flames delight.
[Orphic Hymn 55: To Adonis]
riginally, Adonis was the lover of the goddess Astarte, who would become identified with the Greek goddess Aphrodite. He was said to have
been a mortal who was killed by a wild boar, who may have been Aphrodite's jealous husband, Ares. The intercession of Aphrodite persuaded Zeus to allow Adonis to return from the underworld for a portion
of the year. The dispute between Aphrodite and Persephone for possession of Adonis is a curious parallel to that between Ishtar and Ereshkigal for Tammuz. It is possible that the Phrygian Adonis was
originally a river-god; the river Nahr Ibrahim, which reaches the sea just south of Byblus, bore in antiquity the name Adonis and there is a complex of temples to Astarte around the gorge of the river.
The spring rain colours the river red with clay washed from the hills; this is still referred to as the blood of Adonis. His rites usually ended with the effigy of the god being cast into the sea or a
river; this is still echoed in vernal folk-customs in many lands.
raser records that the worship of Adonis as a corn-spirit, i.e. a spirit of harvest, in the month of Tammuz (July) persisted in Syria into
the Middle Ages. An Arabic writer of the tenth century recorded:
In the middle of this month is the festival of el-Bûgât, that is, of the weeping women, and this is the Tâ-uz festival, which is
celebrated in honour of the god Tâ-uz. The women bewail him, because his lord slew him so cruelly, ground his bones in a mill, and then scattered them to the wind.[The Golden Bough]. This propitiation of the corn-god (who might be called Tammuz, Attis, Adonis or Osiris) may be ultimately derived from an older, primitive
belief that the spirits of animals and vegetation had to be appeased by those who ate them.
essie Laidlay Weston identified the following points of contact between the Adonis ritual and the Gawain form of the story of the Grail castle:
the waste land; the slain king (or knight); the mourning, with special insistence on the
part played by women; and the restoration of fertility. Another point is worth noting: the dove was sacred to Adonis and doves were sacrificed during his rites. Although Adonis
is never mentioned in Eliot's poem, it is clear from the poet's notes that the myth of Adonis is at its core. Like Tammuz and Attis, Adonis goes down into the underworld but returns each year. The women
weep for Adonis so that he can be reborn.
Above: Detail from the painting by J.M.W. Turner which he entitled, The Golden Bough
he Cumaean Sibyl was the most famous of the Sibyls, the prophetic old women of Greek mythology; she guided Aeneas through Hades in the Aeneid with the help
of a golden bough. In Roman classical times the same term was applied to a bough of the tree in a grove at Nemi, sacred to Diana. In a ritual that had been practised for
at least 500 years, only a runaway slave could cut a branch from the tree at the centre of the sacred grove; but first he had to challenge and then defeat the guardian of the grove, the Rex
Nemorensis or King of the Wood. A challenger who was able to kill the king then took his place as guardian of the sacred grove and, it was implied, as consort of the goddess to whom it was
dedicated. His attempts to explain this ritual led Frazer to study kingship in the ancient world and in primitive cultures. He found that kingship was, in its earliest forms, primarily a religious or
priestly institution. Even after the Romans abolished their monarchy, they retained a "king" who had only a priestly role, the Rex Sacrorum, to perform the sacrifices that in former times had
been made by the king.
Above right: John Collier: Priestess of Delphi
t can be noted, incidentally, that this tradition of the sacred grove was known to Wolfram , who incorporated it
into a (Gawain) chapter of his poem Parzival. In this chapter, the hero is sent by Orgeluse to
challenge the guardian of the sacred wood.
iterature and myth are full of quests for special objects, such as the golden bough, that can only be obtained by overcoming obstacles and
opposition. In opera too: consider Meyerbeer's Robert, who must resist the charms of a host of zombie nuns, to win the cypress branch. At first appearance,
Parsifal act 2 is a story of this type; like Robert, Wagner's youth must resist erotic temptations, to win the holy spear, which will enable him to become king of a
sacred grove. In this case the forest of Monsalvat and the community that it conceals.
ut a careful reading of Wagner's poem shows no evidence that the youth is on a quest for the
spear. Wagner does not tell us why he wanders into Klingsor's magic garden. Even when he begins to realise that he has a (forgotten) mission,
Parsifal does not know what it is about (in fact, he does not know much about anything; he is not even certain of his own name; and it is the function of Kundry to give him information (Kunde)). His quest (if we can call it a quest) is not for the spear, neither is it for the Grail.
Kundry's kiss reveals to Parsifal that his mission concerns Amfortas; and
from that moment onwards, the youth is dedicated to relieving the suffering of the Grail King. He knows nothing of the spear until it is suddenly and
unexpectedly in his hand; and in that moment he realises not only that this is the weapon that injured Amfortas but also that it is the only
cure for the king's wound. Therefore for Parsifal the spear is a means to an end, not an end in itself.
essie Laidlay Weston traced the possible origins of the medieval Grail
romances through Gnostic mystery religions back to the fertility rites and initiation ceremonies of ancient vegetation cults. Independently, evidence for the oriental origin of elements of the Grail legends was gathered by L.E. Iselin (Der morgenländische Ursprung der Grallegende, 1909). Since Wagner's text draws upon these Grail
romances and because he selected elements that connect these romances with the rituals of Indo-European mystery religions, then it is justifiable to regard his
Parsifal (and by the same token, Eliot's The Waste Land), as belonging to a religious tradition that is at least five thousand years old.
n Weston's perspective, Parsifal is the story of a failed initiation into a mystery religion. It tells of an infirm king who is, at first, neither
healed nor replaced by a vigorous successor and how, as a result, his kingdom falls into distress and decay. The old king, his father, dies before the quest has been completed. The Grail-bearer, who is also the messenger of the Grail, weeps bitterly on a spring morning. The symbols of cup and spear are reunited to assure the renewed fertility of land and people.
Above: Act 1 of Parsifal in the recent production from Opéra de Lyon, soon to be restaged at the Met.
learly Eliot was influenced by Frazer's anthropological writings both directly and through the Wagnerian Jessie Laidlay Weston. Similarly his relationship to Wagner is both direct (the poem quotes Tristan und Isolde and Das Rheingold; it also quotes Verlaine's poem about Parsifal) and through Weston. Furthermore, Eliot's poem is connected to Wagner's last music-drama by drawing on a
common myth, the Grail legend. It might be fortuitous that the quotation from Petronius with which Eliot prefaced his poem is singularly appropriate to Kundry:
Said the boys, "What do you want, Sibyl?"; she answered, "I want to die".
o there are threads connecting Eliot's Grail poem and Wagner's Grail drama. Unfortunately
those threads have led some to believe (and recent stagings of the opera have reinforced their belief), that Wagner had built his Parsifal upon the myth of the Waste Land, i.e. the variant of
the Grail legend in which the land (and the vegetable and animal life of that land), suffers as a result of the king's sickness or injury. In some versions of the myth (for
example, in the poems by Chrétien and Wolfram) it is specifically the infertility of the king
that causes the infertility of the crops and livestock of the kingdom and it is the healing of the king that restores the land. Wagner's reworking of the Grail legend is not,
however, based on the Waste Land variant and, unlike many of the romances, it is not concerned with fertility. If Wagner had wanted to stress the sexual aspect of the king's injury, then he would have
made the wound one through the genitals and not through the side, which is where the Prose Draft locates the (physical) wound. It is
the same wound as the Redeemer received
upon the Cross.
Left: The "holy rail", in Lehnhoff's original staging for ENO
herefore the implication in Harry Kupfer's Berlin production that Amfortas' problem is one of sexual dysfunction is an idea that Kupfer has added himself,
rather than his interpretation of Wagner's text. The problem that must be solved, or the need that must be addressed, is not infertility. It is the king's realisation of his own inadequacy that leaves
the knights leaderless. No longer, we are told by Gurnemanz, are knights sent out into the world to help people. The community has closed in on itself, as an
introspective circle of men without any vision. In the opera, the distress of Monsalvat is not relieved by the healing of Amfortas but rather by a young, vigorous and
enlightened hero taking upon himself the kingship. There is no hint, in Wagner's Prose Drafts or Poem, that the
domain of the Grail becomes a wasteland when Amfortas becomes sick or that the fertility of the land is restored by the return of Parsifal with the spear. It is the Maimed King who is healed — whether this heals the land we are not told — and the brotherhood, if not the
land, is restored under a new leader with a new vision.
et it has become a tiresome cliché of modern stagings that the third act (and in some productions also the first act) of Parsifal
is set in a bleak wasteland. This contradicts not only Wagner's stage directions but also his poem (libretto). Emphasis on the Eliot connection reached its
apogee in the Niklaus Lehnhoff production (which has been staged at ENO and Chicago). It would be unfortunate if this production misled other producers into believing that Wagner's opera is a story of
the Waste Land because it is not. That variant of the Grail myth was not used by Wagner, whose poem indicates that the first act
takes place in a green forest, the second act in a garden filled with unnatural flowers, and the first part of the third act in a flowery meadow.
As J.G. Frazer himself anticipated, ideas that he put forward in the The Golden Bough
and other writings on anthropology would be refined or superseded by later
research. Frazer admitted that they consisted mostly of speculation and many scholars today regard it as largely unfounded speculation. But that is not the only reason to take his writings with a good
pinch of salt. During the century since the final, expanded version of The Golden Bough
was published, critics and commentators have challenged Frazer's approach and agenda. Some even have
claimed that Frazer started with conclusions and then looked for evidence to support them, ignoring evidence that did not fit. Whether that is true or not, it is clear that Frazer had some definite ideas
that he should have reconsidered in the light of evidence. All of which was second hand, since Frazer did not gather anything in the field and he did not visit many of the cultures he wrote about.
Contemporaries who did study those cultures, such as Baldwin Spencer, challenged Frazer for interpreting all religious practices in terms of concepts and terminology specific to the Christian Church.
Another general criticism of Frazer's approach is that he tried to interpret all myths as agricultural. But not all myths are about vegetation and harvests, or only indirectly or partially about such
matters. Concerning kingship, there were many different kinds of kings, tyrants and rulers in the ancient world, and even in the 19th century there was most likely wider variation in primitive societies
than Frazer would admit. Perhaps some of his theories applied to kingship in certain societies but not to all cultures. In general, much that Frazer believed about primitive societies has been shown to
be incorrect by anthropologists and other scholars.