Prose Sketch for Die Sieger
This drama, which never seems to have progressed beyond this short sketch (if Wagner wrote a prose draft, then it has not survived) was to be based on an
avadana (a tale of heroic and miraculous acts performed by the Buddha in any of his incarnations) from the collection Divya avadâna, called
Sârdûla karnavadana. [Editor's note]
- Shakyamuni [the future Buddha]
- Ananda [his disciple]
- Prakriti [an outcast or Chandala girl]
- Her Mother
In the autumn of 1854 Wagner had been
introduced by Georg Herwegh to Schopenhauer's Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung (The World as Will and Representation). Thus stimulated, and parallel
to this important new influence, he began to occupy himself intensively with India, especially with the teaching and legends of the
Buddha. On 30 April 1855, he wrote from London to Mathilde Wesendonk, describing his reading of Adolf Holtzmann's Indische Sagen [Stuttgart, 1854] as
only joy here ... What a shameful place our entire learning takes, confronted with these purest revelations of noblest humanity in the ancient Orient.
In the following winter, he studied Eugène Burnouf's monumental Introduction à l'Histoire du Buddhisme Indien (Paris, 1844). Both works can still be
seen today in Wagner's library in the Villa Wahnfried in Bayreuth. Burnouf provided Wagner with the legends which formed the basis of The Victors. As
late as 1868 he lent the book to King Ludwig II as an elucidation of the plan for the drama, which he had obviously described verbally to the king a short time
before. We possess a short sketch of the project, which Wagner put on paper in Zürich on 16 May 1856, at a point between the composition of The Valkyrie
[Richard Wagners Buddha-Projekt "Die Sieger": Seine ideellen und strukturellen Spuren in "Ring" und "Parsifal", Wolfgang Osthoff, Arkiv für
Musikwissenschaft 40:3, 1983, p 189-211.]
The Buddha on his last journey. Ananda
given water from the well by Prakriti, the Chandala maiden. Her tumult of love for Ananda; his consternation. --
Prakriti in love's agony: her mother brings Ananda to her: love's battle royal: Ananda, distressed and moved to tears, released by Shakya' [the Buddha]. --
Prakriti goes to Buddha, under the tree at the city's gate, to plead for union with Ananda. He asks if she is willing to fulfil the stipulations of such a union?
Dialogue with twofold meaning, interpreted by Prakriti in the sense of her passion; she sinks horrified and sobbing to the ground, when she hears at length that
she must share Ananda's vow of chastity.
Ananda persecuted by the Brahmins. Reproofs against Buddha's commerce with a Chandala girl. Buddha's attack on the spirit of caste. He tells of Prakriti's
previous incarnation; she then was the daughter of a haughty Brahmin; the Chandala King, remembering a former existence as Brahmin, had craved the Brahmin's
daughter for his son, who had conceived a violent passion for her; in pride and arrogance the daughter had refused return of love, and mocked at the unfortunate.
This she had now to expiate, reborn as Chandala to feel the torments of a hopeless love; yet to renounce withal, and be led to full redemption by acceptance into
Prakriti answers Buddha's final question with a joyful Yea. Ananda welcomes her as sister. Buddha's last teachings. All are converted by him. He departs to the
place of his redemption.
Zurich. May 16, 1856. [tr. William Ashton Ellis]
urnouf's summary of the story, which was obviously the basis of Wagner's sketch
above, is this:
Çâkyamuni se présente en effet, et il apprend de
la bouche de la jeune fille l'amour qu'elle ressent pour Ânanda et la détermination où elle est de le suivre. Profitant de cette passion pour convertir Prakriti,
le Buddha, par une suite de questions que Prakriti peut prendre dans le sens de son amour, mais qu'il fait sciemment dans un sens tout religieux, finit par
ouvrir à la lumière les yeux de la jeune fille et par lui inspirer le désir d'embrasser la vie ascétique. C'est ainsi qu'il lui demande si elle consent à suivre
Ânanda, c'est à-dire à l'imiter dans ca conduite; si elle veut porter les mêmes vêtements que lui, c'est-à-dire le vêtements des personnes religieuses; si elle
est autorisée par ses parents: questions que la loi de la Discipline exige qu'on adresse à ceux qui veulent se faire mendiants buddhistes.
Eugène Burnouf, Introduction à l'Histoire du Buddhisme Indien, Paris, 1844.
ess than a year later, Wagner had changed the name of the Chandala girl from
Prakriti to Savitri:
... in the Victors what will happen is
as follows: the girl (presumably Savitri) who, while waiting for Ananda in the second act, rolls in the flowers in utter ecstacy, absorbing the sun, the woods,
the birds and the water -- everything -- the whole of nature in her wanton pleasure, is challenged by Shakya, after she has taken her fateful vow [in the third
act], to look around her and above her, and is then asked what she thinks of it all? --
Not very beautiful -- she then says gravely and sadly, for she now
sees the other side of the world.
The plan underwent some modifications and
additions in the following years. No doubt the most important was Wagner's entry in the Venetian Diary for Mathilde Wesendonk on 5 October 1858; this agrees with
the sentences quoted [as the last item below], written just before his death:
Shakyamuni was initially opposed to the idea of
admitting women into the community of saints. He repeatedly expressed the view of them that, by nature, women are far too subject to their sexual identity, and
hence to whim and caprice, and far too attached to worldly existence to be able to achieve the composure and deep contemplativeness necessary for the individual
to renounce his natural inclinations and achieve redemption [Erlösung]. It was his favourite pupil, Ananda, -- that
same Ananda to whom I have already allotted a part in my The Victors -- who was finally able to persuade
the master to relent and open up the community to women...
Without any sense of unnaturalness, my plan has been vastly and hugely expanded. The difficulty here was to make the Buddha himself - a
figure totally liberated and above all passion - suitable for dramatic and, more especially, musical treatment. But I have now solved the problem by having him
reach one last remaining stage in his development whereby he is seen to acquire a new insight, which - like every insight - is conveyed not by abstract
associations of ideas but by intuitive emotional experience, in other words, by a process of shock and agitation suffered by his inner self; as a result, this
insight reveals him in his final progress towards a state of supreme enlightenment. Ananda, who is closer to life
and directly affected by the love of the Chandala girl, becomes the agent of his ultimate enlightenment.
During the years that followed, the project
appeared continually in letters and reports. The Munich Festival programme prepared for Ludwig II in 1865 included The Victors in firm plans for August
1870, August 1871 and August 1873, alongside Parsifal, which was at that stage similarly without libretto or music, and the still incomplete
Ring and Mastersingers. In the above-mentioned letter to the king in 1868, Wagner was aware that his source -- Burnouf's book -- contained
only a very short extract of the real legend [which Burnouf had translated from Sanskrit but not published in full] -- and to what extent his
fantasy had already been used to fill out thin material. Sometimes Wagner expressed a wish to write The Victors as a drama without music and to have
his son Siegfried then set it to music. We have a remark of Cosima's, a few months before his death, that
he would not compose on the subject of the Buddha,
for the reason that the images -- mango-tree, lotus-flower, etc. -- were not ones familiar to him, so that the poetry inevitably would turn out artificial.
He had already foreseen similar difficulties in 1881 ... That completing Parsifal blocked a realization of The Victors can be inferred from the
denial that Wagner felt he needed to make on 10 July 1882:
Dear friend, it amuses me to put your Berlin
journal [Allgemeine Musik-Zeitung] in order on certain matters. Here is another report, not a word of which is true -- which looks particularly impertinent given
the tone of great assurance, as though the report were that of a close friend. More than 25 years ago I sketched out a scenario on a single side of paper and
gave it the name: the Victors. Since conceiving Parsifal, I have altogether abandoned this Buddhist project -- which is related to the former
only in a weaker sense -- and since that time have given no further thought to elaborating the sketch, still less of reading it aloud.
It is a beautiful feature in the legend, that
shows the Victoriously Perfect [
der Siegreich Vollendete] at last determined to admit the woman. [In the margin:] Love -- Tragedy.
[R. Wagner, On the Womanly in the Human, February 1883. The very last words that Wagner wrote.]
© Derrick Everett 1996-2015. This page last updated (added section breaks, changed style of ingress) --- Mon 9 Nov 2015 23:10:00 ---