Right: this carving from Jaén Cathedral shows an oriental or Moorish philosopher and an occidental knight with a stone that fell from Heaven.
olfram's Parzival contains passages that reveal a
knowledge of events in the Levant, as might have been told by returning crusaders. Indeed, Wolfram claims to have taken his subject
matter from a book given to him by Philip, Duke of Flanders, who had been in those lands in 1177. He also cites as a source a certain mysterious Kyot, who provided him with further material from the south of France or perhaps Moorish Spain (and the Kabbalah of the Spanish Jews). So there are Arabic and other exotic elements in Wolfram's
story that do not appear in his primary source, Chrétien's unfinished poem.
n Wolfram's account, the Grail is a stone that fell from the
heavens. It is by the power of this stone that the phoenix rises from the ashes. Hence Wagner's reference to the
meteoric stone in the mosque at Mecca.
Arthur, the Once and Future King
ith the appearance in 1136 of The History of the Kings of Britain, an extraordinary
book written by Geoffrey of Monmouth, the names of the mythical hero Arthur and the mythical wizard Merlin became inseparably linked. The book became the medieval
equivalent of a best seller, with an enormous number of copies being made (in an age before the printing press) and circulated throughout western Europe. Many
adaptations and paraphrases were made in Latin prose and verse, and then vernacular versions appeared in Old English, Old French or Welsh. The characters and ideas
of Geoffrey's book were developed by French writers, such as Marie de France and Chrétien de Troyes. Other tales were related to the
court of Arthur: these included the love story of Tristam and Yseult or Tristan and Isolde (of which the earliest version appeared around 1150)
and the story of the Grail and its guardian, the Fisher King.
he medieval romances that tell of the Holy Grail divide into two groups. In the first group
are the different versions of the story of the quester who visits the Grail Castle, where he witnesses miracles but fails to ask the
vital Question. In the earlier versions of this story, the quester is either Gawain or
Perceval. In the second and smaller group are the romances dealing with the early history of the Grail. These
describe the history of a sacred vessel in which the blood of Christ had been captured. Joseph Campbell divided the literature of
Arthur, Merlin and the Holy Grail into four overlapping phases:
- Anglo-Norman patriotic epics: 1137- 1205
- French courtly romances: 1160- 1230
- Religious legends of the Grail: 1180- 1230
- German biographical epics: 1200- 1215
Copyright J. Horner, by permission.
he first of these phases was concentrated on Arthur and Merlin, in the books written by
Geoffrey of Monmouth and the French cleric Wace. In the second phase, the focus moved to the knights of Arthur's court, including Perceval and Gawain, whose adventures were described in Chrétien's Perceval ou Le Conte du Graal. R.S. Loomis and other scholars have argued that, in view of the
differences and similarities between the story of Peredur in the Mabinogion and the French
works, both Perceval and Peredur son of Evrawc must have derived from a common
predecessor, probably written in French, which has been lost without trace. Campbell speculated that there was at this time an entire body of tales based on Celtic
(Welsh and Irish) myth. These "folk materials" were to be developed into first oral and then written epics.
he third phase was motivated by an attempt by the Church to take over the popular figures
and events of the courtly romances and to utilise them in the promotion of Christian doctrines. There were two major components in this movement:
- the writings of Robert de Boron, in particular his Joseph d'Arimathie (1180-1199) in which the Grail became, for the
first time, a chalice;
- the Vulgate Cycle (1215-1230, according to R.S. Loomis), including L'Estoire del Saint Graal and La Queste del Saint
Graal, in which the Grail is a dish.
n the final phase, the literature of the Holy Grail reached its apogee in the work of the
poet-knight Wolfram von Eschenbach. As Oswald Spengler pointed out, it was with Wolfram that western
civilisation arrived at a mythology of inwardly motivated quest, directed from within:
the tragic line of the individual life develops from within outward,
n one of the so-called Continuations to Chrétien's
Perceval, probably written about 1230, the Fisher King reveals that the bleeding spear is the
lance that pierced the side of Christ and that the Grail is the cup in which Joseph of Arimathea caught the blood of Christ. This interpretation is also described in Robert de
Boron's Joseph d'Arimathie, finished about 1199. There is one element of Robert de Boron's story that
found its way into Wagner's story although it does not appear either in Chrétien or the Continuations: the Grail ceremony induces pain
in any sinner present. None of this is found in Wolfram and it may be supposed that Wagner had read a text that referred to, or
summarised, Joseph d'Arimathie.
Left: Parsifal Act 3, Washington Opera 2000. Production and designs by Roberto Oswald. ©Washington Opera.
esearch has probably not identified all of the immediate sources
for Wagner's summary of the Grail literature but it is known that he read both secondary and primary material. His claim to
have invented the interpretation of the Grail as a chalice is disingenuous, as he must have known about Christian interpretations of the Grail, even before he read
Perceval. There is evidence that Wagner had read Chrétien de Troyes and the Continuations in the
edition by Ch. Potvin, published in seven volumes between 1866 and 1871, of which there are copies in his Wahnfried library. The
first of Potvin's volumes contains a work that has no direct connection with Chrétien: the Perlesvaus, a prose romance that scholars believe was written in northern France, a few years after the death of Chrétien and perhaps as late as 1225. The first sentence in the book is the following:
The history of the holy vessel which is called Grail,
in which the precious blood of the Saviour was received on the day He was crucified in order to redeem His people from hell
Left: The Grail is uncovered at the end of the opera, in a NY Met production.
agner was familiar with the work of contemporary scholars on the sources of Wolfram's epic but dismissed his interpretation of the Grail as a stone brought to earth by angels. Wagner adopted the Christianised version of the Grail but discarded the Question entirely, made the recovery of the spear the focus of the story and changed some of the names from those found in Wolfram's poem. Many other elements he
used, however: such as the election of those who might find their way to the Grail, the life-preserving power of the Grail and the descending dove.